The National Association of Window Glass Manufacturers (Association) (defendant) was a voluntary trade organization of handblown-window-glass manufacturers. The Association established a rotating wage scale that restricted its members’ access to skilled union labor during certain time periods. Without union labor, a manufacturer would have to halt all production of handblown window glass. The rotating wage scale thus had the effect of designating time periods during which members’ factories could operate. The United States (plaintiff) sued the Association, its constituent manufacturers, and some of the manufacturers’ officers (defendants), alleging that the wage scale was an agreement in restraint of trade in violation of § 1 of the Sherman Act. After a hearing, the district court ordered the Association and its members to disregard the agreement and operate their factories as usual. The Association appealed directly to the United States Supreme Court.