The Town of Gilbert (defendant) passed an ordinance regulating the posting of signs in the town. The ordinance created different categories of signs, including “Ideological Sign[s],” “Political Sign[s],” and “Temporary Directional Signs Relating to a Qualifying Event.” The ordinance applied different restrictions to each category. The ordinance was more restrictive with its regulation of temporary directional signs. Good News Community Church and its pastor, Clyde Reed (plaintiffs), held church services at various buildings in the town. Reed posted temporary signs around the town to direct parishioners to the services. The town cited Reed because the signs violated the sign ordinance. Reed brought suit in the United States District Court for the District of Arizona, claiming that the ordinance violated his freedom of speech. The town cited aesthetic appeal and traffic management as the interests served by implementing the different restrictions based on sign type. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.