The Times-Picayune Publishing Company (Times-Picayune) (defendant) was a newspaper publisher that published and distributed a morning and evening paper throughout New Orleans, Louisiana. The Times-Picayune developed a practice of selling general display advertising and classified advertising in a single unit package for both morning and evening insertions. A prospective advertiser was not allowed to buy one advertising slot without also purchasing the other. Believing the practice to violate antitrust law, the United States (plaintiff) brought a complaint against the Times-Picayune, alleging that the unit-sales contract violated the Sherman Act as an unlawful tying arrangement. The district court found the unit contracts to constitute an unlawful tying arrangement in violation of the Sherman Act. The Times-Picayune appealed.