A jury convicted Stephen Voisine (defendant) of misdemeanor domestic assault under a Maine state law that made it a crime to “intentionally, knowingly or recklessly” cause bodily injury or offensively touch another. Subsequently, the United States (plaintiff) charged Voisine with violating 18 U.S.C. § 922(g)(9), which prohibited firearm possession by anyone convicted of a misdemeanor domestic violence crime that included an element of use of force. Voisine argued that under the state statute his assault conviction could have been for reckless conduct which would not have met the use-of-force standard under § 922(g)(9). The district court rejected that claim and convicted Voisine. The United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit affirmed. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.