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Federal Courts


Judicial Finality

Learn about the final judgment act and how the concepts of res judicata and collateral estoppel constrain federal courts.


I.          Introduction 

When is a case actually decided? 

A case is considered to have been decided on the entry of a final judgment. A final judgment disposes of all claims and all parties in a proceeding, leaving nothing undecided. Therefore, whether an order, judgment, or decree is final depends on whether it disposed of the entire case, leaving nothing for determination. After a final judgment, no further judicial action is required other...