Robert E. Lee (defendant), a public middle school principal, invited a Jewish rabbi to say prayers at his school’s graduation ceremony. Daniel Weisman (plaintiff), whose daughter was among the expected graduates, sought a temporary restraining order in federal district court to prevent the rabbi from speaking at the graduation. His request was denied, and the rabbi delivered several prayers at the graduation. Weisman later sought a permanent injunction in federal district court barring Lee and other school officials from inviting clergy to deliver prayers at public school graduations. The district court granted the injunction, and the court of appeals affirmed. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.