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The Parol Evidence Rule

Learn what integrated terms are under Article 2 and the rules concerning the explanation, supplementation, and contradiction of integrated terms.


The parol-evidence rule is a contract-law principle that generally prohibits the introduction of any extrinsic evidence contradicting or varying the terms of a complete and final written agreement. Extrinsic evidence refers to any evidence outside the four corners of the written agreement.

I. Article 2’s Parol-Evidence Rule

Article 2 has its own version of the parol-evidence rule. Found in Section 2-202, the rule says that any term on which the parties’ confirmatory memoranda agree, or any term...