Learn about the basic tests to establish actual causation, including the but-for test, the concurrent causes doctrine, the substantial factor test, and the alternative causes doctrine.
Now, let's talk about actual causation. Actual causation, otherwise known as causation-in-fact, means that the plaintiff's injury was actually caused by the defendant's negligent conduct. Actual causation is fairly intuitive, but it is not always as straightforward as you might think, especially in situations where multiple forces combine to cause the plaintiff's injury.
I. Tests for Actual Causation
Courts have developed four basic tests to deal with the issue of actual...