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Sex Discrimination and Title IX

Learn about Title IX and how it prohibits sex discrimination in any education program, including sports, that receives federal funding.


Gender equity is an important aspect of promoting fair participation and competition in sports. Legal disputes over gender equity in sports typically arise through constitutional questions or challenges to Title IX of the Education Amendments Act.

I. Constitutional Issues

Women’s soccer may be one of the most popular sports in the United States today, but in the 1970s, there was a constitutional question of whether women could even play high school soccer.

In 1976, Donna Hoover was an...